Rabu, 25 April 2012


Tank adalah kendaraan tempur lapis baja yang bergerak menggunakan roda berbentuk rantai. Ciri utama tank adalah pelindungnya yang biasanya adalah lapisan baja yang berat, senjatanya yang merupakan meriam besar, serta mobilitas yang tinggi untuk bergerak dengan lancar di segala medan. Meskipun tank adalah kendaraan yang mahal dan membutuhkan persediaan logistik yang banyak, tank adalah senjata darat paling tangguh dan serba-bisa pada medan perang modern, dikarenakan kemampuannya untuk menghancurkan target darat apapun, dan efek mentalnya terhadap infanteri.


1. M1A2 Abrams (U.S.A)



Weight 67.6 short tons (61.4 tonnes)
Length Gun forward: 32.04 ft (9.77 m)
Hull length: 26.02 ft (7.93 m)
Width 12 ft (3.66 m)
Height 8 ft (2.44 m)
Crew 4 (commander, gunner, loader, driver)

Primary armament : 120 mm M256 smoothbore cannon
Secondary armament : 1 x .50-caliber (12.7 mm) M2HB heavy machine gun
2 x M240 7.62 mm machine guns (1 pintle-mounted, 1 coaxial)
Engine : AGT-1500C multi-fuel turbine engine 1500 hp (1119 kW)
Power/weight : 24.5 hp/tonne
Operational range : 465.29 km (289 mi)
With NBC system: 449.19 km (279 mi)
Speed Road: 67.72 km/h (42 mph)
Off-road: 48.3 km/h (30 mph)

M1 Abrams adalah MBT buatan General Dynamics Land Systems US. Nama Abrams diambil dari Jendral Creighton Abrams. Varian awal yakni M1 pertama kali masuk dinas operasional tahun 1978, M1A1 tahun 1985, dan terakhir M1A2 tahun 1986. Varian M1A1 terlibat dalam Gulf war & Operation Iraqi Freedom berhadapan dengan T-55, T-62 dan T-72 Iraq.

Awalnya Abrams adalah hasil dari pembatalan MBT-70, sebuah varian tank yang dikembangkan oleh Jerman dan Amerika. Proyek kerjasama ini kemudian dibatalkan dan masing-masing pihak meneruskan pembuatan tank dari data-data yang didapatkan dari proyek MBT-70, Amerika kemudian membuat M1 Abrams sedangkan Jerman membuat Leopard 2. Varian awal M1 Abrams masih menggunakan meriam kaliber 105mm, pada varian selanjutnya (M1A1 & M1A2) digantikan dengan meriam kaliber 120mm buatan Rheinmetall Jerman. Varian awal M1 dan M1A1 mengandalkan mesin diesel, namun varian M1A2 memakai mesin gasturbine yang lebih bertenaga, walaupun mesin baru ini menggunakan bahan bakar lebih banyak.

Setelah pengalama di perang-perang sebelumnya, Abrams memiliki pilihan tambahan armor, yakni TUSK (Tank Urban Survival Kit).


2. T-80U (Russia)



Weight 50.7 tonnes
Length 7.01 m (9.72 m with gun in forward position)
Width 3.60 m
Height 2.20 m
Crew 3 (driver, gunner, commander)
Primary armament :125 mm 2A46M-1 (D-81TM “Rapira-3″) smoothbore gun 39 rounds

Secondary armament : 7.62 mm PKT coaxial machine gun (1,250 rounds)[2]
7.62 mm PKT KT-7.62 coaxial machine gun (1,250 rounds) (T-80UD)[1]
12.7 mm NSVT anti-aircraft machine gun (500 rounds)[2]
12.7 mm KT-12.7 anti-aircraft machine gun (450 rounds) (T-80UD)[1]
9M112 Kobra (AT-8 Songster) ATGM (6 missiles) (T-80, T-80B)[2]
9M119 Svir (AT-11 Sniper) and 9M119M Refleks (AT-11B Sniper) ATGM[2] (6 missiles) (T-80U)[2]
Engine :GTD-1250 multi-fuel 1,250 hp (932 kW)
Power/weight :24.7 hp/tonne (18.4 kW/tonne)
Operational range :500 km, 900 km with extra tanks (on road)

T-80 diproduksi di Kirov Plant, Leningrad. Pertama kali masuk dinas operasional tahun 1976. T-80 didesain untuk menggantikan T-64. T-80 adalah tank Russia pertama yang menggunakan mesin gasturbine, mesin ini mampu membuat T-80 mencapai kecepatan 70km/jam dengan jarak maksimal 335km. Seperti karakteristik mesin gas turbine umumnya, mesin GTD-1000 ini mengkonsumsi bahan bakar yang banyak, sehingga bagian hull tank dilakukan perubahan desain guna menampung lebih banyak bahan bakar. Pada varian selanjutnya yakni T-80U, mesin gasturbine diganti dengan GTD-1250.

T-80 menggunakan meriam kaliber 125mm. Meriam ini selain bisa menembakan peluru tank bisa dipakai juga untuk meluncurkan ATGW. Selain itu T-80 menggunakan Autoloader sehingga mengurangi jumlah awak menjadi 3. Seperti pada varian sebelumnya, tank ini sudah dilengkapi oleh dozer di bagian bawah hull.

Saat ini 4.500 T-80 tercatat masih beroperasi di Rusia

3. T-90 (Russia)


Weight 46.5 tonnes
Length 9.53 m (31.27 ft)
Width 3.78 m (9.12 ft)
Height 2.22 m (7.28 ft)
Crew 3

Primary armament :125 mm smoothbore gun with ATGM capability; mainly 9M119 Svir
Secondary armament : 7.62 mm coaxial machine gun, 12.7 mm anti-aircraft machine gun
Engine : Model V-96 12-cyl. diesel 1,100 hp (820 kW) for V-96 12-cyl. diesel engine
Power/weight: 23.7 hp/tonne (17.6 kW/tonne) for V-96 12-cyl. diesel engine

4. Leclerc (France)


Weight 54.5 tonnes
Length 9.87 m (6.88 without gun)
Width 3.71 m
Height 2.53 m
Crew 3 (Commander, gunner, driver)

Primary armament :120mm tank gun 40 rounds
Secondary armament :12.7 mm coaxial M2HB machine gun 1,100 rounds 7.62mm machine gun 3,000 rounds
Engine : 8-cylinder diesel Wärtsilä 1,500 hp (1,100 kW)
Power/weight : 27.52 hp/tonne
Operational range : 550 km
Speed : 71 km/h

5. Leopard 2A6 (Germany)


Weight 62.3 tonnes
Length 7.7 m
Width 3.7 m
Height 3.0 m
Crew 4

Primary armament : 1 x 120 mm Rheinmetall L55 smoothbore gun.42 rounds
Secondary armament : 1 x 7.62 mm MG3 4,750 rounds
Engine : MTU MB 873 Ka-501 12-cylinder diesel 1,500 HP (1,103 kW) at 2600 RPM.
Power/weight : 24.2 hp/tonne
range : 550 km (internal fuel)
Speed :72 km/h

6. Challenger 1 (United Kingdom)


Weight 62 tonnes
Length 11.5 m (Gun forward)
Width 3.51 m
Height 2.95 m
Crew 4 (commander, gunner, loader, driver)

Primary armament : L11A5 120 mm rifled 64 rounds
Secondary armament : 7.62 mm L8A2, 7.62 mm L37A2 machine guns 4,000 rounds
Engine : Rolls-Royce CV12 26 litre diesel 1,200 hp (895 kW)
range : 450 km (on road)
Speed : 56 km/h (37 mph)

7. Challenger 2 (United Kingdom)

Weight 62.5 tonnes
Length 8.3 m (11.50 m with gun forward)
Width 3.5 m (4.2 m with appliqué armour)
Height 2.5 m
Crew 4 (commander, gunner, loader/operator, driver)

Primary armament : L30A1 120 mm rifled with 52 rounds
Secondary armament : coaxial 7.62 mm L94A1 EX-34 (chain gun), 7.62 mm L37A2 Commander’s cupola machine gun
Engine : Perkins CV-12 Diesel 1,200 hp (895 kW)
Power/weight : 19.2 hp/tonne
range : 450 km (279 miles)
Speed : 59 km/h (37 mph)

8. Type-90 (Japan)


Weight 50.2 tonnes
Length 9.755 m
Width 3.33 m
Height 2.33 m
Crew 3

Primary armament : 120mm smoothbore gun 35 rounds
Secondary armament : M2HB 12.7mm machine gun 1,500 rounds 7.62mm machine gun Type 74 2,000 rounds
Engine Mitsubishi 10ZG 10 cylinder, Two stroke cycle Diesel 21500cc 1500ps/2400rpm (1,120 kW)
Power/weight : 30 hp/tonne
range : 350 km (Fuel 1100L)
Speed :70 km/h (Acceleration: 0-200m/20s)

9. K1 88 (South Korean)


Weight 51.1 ton (54.5 ton for K1A1)
Length 9.67 m (9.71m for K1A1)
Width 3.60 m
Height 2.25 m
Crew 4

Primary armament K1A1 : KM256 120mm
Secondary armament : 12.7 mm antiaircraft machine gun 7.62 mm coaxial machine gun
Engine : 10-cyl. water-cooled diesel MTU 871 Ka-501 1200 hp (890 kW)
Power/weight : 23.4 hp / ton (22.0 hp / ton for K1A1)
range : 500 km
Speed : 65 km/h

10. Type-96 (People’s Republic of China)


Weight 46 tonnes
Length 10.28 m
Width 3.45 m
Height 2.30 m
Crew 3

Primary armament : 125 mm smoothbore gun
Secondary armament : 7.62 mm coaxial machine gun 12.7 mm air-defence machine gun
Engine : diesel 1000 hp (750 kW)
Power/weight : 21 hp/tonne
Operational range : 450 km, 600 km with external fuel
Speed : 65 km/h

11. M-84 (Yugoslavia)


Weight 45 tonnes
Length 9.53 m
Width 3.57 m
Height 2.19 m
Crew 3 (Commander, gunner, driver)

Primary armament : 125 mm 2A46 smoothbore gun
Secondary armament : 7.62 mm M86 coaxial machine gun, 12.7 mm M87 anti-aircraft machine gun
Engine : diesel V-46TK 1,000 hp (750 kW)
Power/weight : 24.10 hp/tonne
Fuel capacity : 1200 + 400l
Operational : range 700 km
Speed : 68 km/h
12 . Osorio (Brazil)



Weight 39 tonnes (85,800 lb)
Length 9.99 m
Width 3.26 m
Height 2.37 m
Crew 4

Primary armament : 105 mm L/52 L7 British rifled gun, or 120 mm GIAT G1 French smoothbore gun.
Secondary armament : 1 x Hughes X34 7.62 mm machine gun (coaxial), 1 x M2HB 12.7mm (AA)
Engine :12-cylinder diesel 1,100 hp
Power/weight : 26 hp/tonne
Operational range : 550 km
Speed : 70 km/h


13. PT-91 (Poland)

Weight 45.9 tonnes
Length 6.95 m (9.67 with barrel in forward position)
Width 3.59 m
Height 2.19 m
Crew 3

Primary armament : 1 x 125mm 2A46M (D-81TM) gun (42 rounds)
Secondary armament : 1 x 7.62mm PKT coaxial general purpose machine gun (2000 rounds) 1 x 12.7mm NSVT anti-aircraft heavy machine gun (300 rounds)
Engine : PZL-Wola S-12U 850 HP (634 kW)
Power/weight : 18.5 hp/tonne (13.8 kW/tonne)
Fuel capacity :1000 l
Operational range : 650 km (700 km with extra fuel tanks)
Speed : 60 km/h

14. Ariete (Italy)


Weight 54 tonnes
Length 9.67 m (7.59 without gun)
Width 3.42 m
Height 2.50 m
Crew 4

Primary armament : 120mm smoothbore tank gun 42 rounds (15 rounds inside Turret magazine with additional 27 rounds in the chassis)
Secondary armament : 7.62mm coaxial machine-gun, 7.62mm AA machine-gun 2,500 rounds
Engine : V-12 turbocharged diesel FIAT MTCA 1,247 hp (937 kW)
Power/weight : 23 hp/tonne
Operational range : 550 km
Speed : 65 km/h

15. Merkava (Israel)


Weight 65 tons
Length 9.04 m (29.7 ft) – rear to muzzle
Width 3.72 m (12.2 ft) – without skirts
Height 2.66 m (8.73 ft) – turret roof
Crew 4

Primary armament : 120 mm MG253 smoothbore gun: 48 rounds, LAHAT ATGM
Secondary armament : 1 × 12.7 mm MG, 2 × 7.62 mm MG, 1 × 60 mm internal mortar, 12 smoke grenades
Engine : 1,500 hp diesel
Power/weight : 23 hp/ton
Operational range : 500 km (310 mi)
Speed :70 km/h (43 MPH)

16. Arjun (India)


Weight 58.5 tonnes
Length 10.638 m
Width 3.864 m
Height 2.32 m
Crew 4 (commander, gunner, loader and driver)

Primary armament : 120 mm rifled tank gun, Lahat anti-tank missile HEAT, APFSDS, HESH Rounds
Secondary armament : HCB 12.7mm AA MG, Mag 7.62mm Tk715 coaxial MG
Engine : MTU 838 Ka 501 diesel 1400 hp (1040 kW)
Power/weight : 24 hp/tonne
Fuel capacity : 1610 Litre
Operational range : 450 km

17. Stridsvagn 103 B (Sweden)


Weight 103 B: 39.7 tonnes
Length 9.00 m (incl. gun)
Width 103 B: 3.60 m
Height 2.14 m
Crew 3 (Commander, gunner/driver, rear driver)

Primary armament : 105 mm L/62 rifled Gun
Secondary armament two fixed 7.62 mm MG one Anti-aircraft 7.62 mm MG
Engine 103 B: Caterpillar 553 gas turbine + Rolls-Royce K 60 diesel
103 B: 490 hp (365 kW) turbine + 240 hp (179 kW) diesel

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